Introduction ::QatarBackground:Ruled by the Al Thani family since the mid-1800s, Qatar transformed itself from a poor British protectorate noted mainly for pearling into an independent state with significant oil and natural gas revenues. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, the Qatari economy was crippled by a continuous siphoning off of petroleum revenues by the Amir, who had ruled the country since 1972. His son, the current Amir HAMAD bin Khalifa Al Thani, overthrew the father in a bloodless coup in 1995. In 2001, Qatar resolved its longstanding border disputes with both Bahrain and Saudi Arabia. As of 2007, oil and natural gas revenues had enabled Qatar to attain the highest per capita income in the world. Qatar has not experienced the level of unrest or violence seen in other Near Eastern and North African countries in 2010-11, due in part to its immense wealth. Qatar's international image is bolstered in part by the Doha-based Al Jazeera news network, which has provided comprehensive coverage of the Near East and North African Arab revolutions. Additionally, Qatar played a significant role in the Libyan revolution by pressing the Gulf Cooperation Council and the Arab League to assist the Libyan rebel movement.Geography ::QatarLocation:Middle East, peninsula bordering the Persian Gulf and Saudi ArabiaGeographic coordinates:25 30 N, 51 15 EArea:total: 11,586 sq kmcountry comparison to the world: 166land: 11,586 sq kmwater: 0 sq kmArea - comparative:slightly smaller than ConnecticutLand boundaries:total: 60 kmborder countries: Saudi Arabia 60 kmCoastline:563 kmMaritime claims:territorial sea: 12 nmcontiguous zone: 24 nmexclusive economic zone: as determined by bilateral agreements or the median lineClimate:arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summersTerrain:mostly flat and barren desert covered with loose sand and gravelElevation extremes:lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 mhighest point: Tuwayyir al Hamir 103 mNatural resources:petroleum, natural gas, fishLand use:arable land: 1.21%permanent crops: 0.17%other: 98.62% (2011)Irrigated land:129.4 sq km (2003)Total renewable water resources:0.06 cu km (2011)Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):total: 0.44 cu km/yr (39%/2%/59%)per capita: 376.9 cu m/yr (2005)Natural hazards:haze, dust storms, sandstorms commonEnvironment - current issues:limited natural freshwater resources are increasing dependence on large-scale desalination facilitiesEnvironment - international agreements:party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollutionsigned, but not ratified: none of the selected agreementsGeography - note:strategic location in central Persian Gulf near major petroleum depositsPeople and Society ::QatarNationality:noun: Qatari(s)adjective: QatariEthnic groups:Arab 40%, Indian 18%, Pakistani 18%, Iranian 10%, other 14%Languages:Arabic (official), English commonly used as a second languageReligions:Muslim 77.5%, Christian 8.5%, other 14% (2004 census)Population:2,042,444 (July 2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 146Age structure:0-14 years: 12.5% (male 129,465/female 125,623)15-24 years: 13.9% (male 208,625/female 74,881)25-54 years: 69.5% (male 1,170,547/female 248,369)55-64 years: 3.3% (male 52,799/female 15,411)65 years and over: 0.8% (male 10,214/female 6,510) (2013 est.)Dependency ratios:total dependency ratio: 17.2 %youth dependency ratio: 16 %elderly dependency ratio: 1.2 %potential support ratio: 83.9 (2013)Median age:total: 32.4 yearsmale: 33.4 yearsfemale: 28 years (2013 est.)Population growth rate:4.19% (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 4Birth rate:10.08 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 194Death rate:1.54 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 225Net migration rate:33.31 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 2Urbanization:urban population: 98.8% of total population (2011)rate of urbanization: 3.01% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)Major urban areas - population:DOHA (capital) 427,000 (2009)Sex ratio:at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female15-24 years: 2.83 male(s)/female25-54 years: 4.61 male(s)/female55-64 years: 3.41 male(s)/female65 years and over: 1.5 male(s)/femaletotal population: 3.29 male(s)/female (2013 est.)Maternal mortality rate:7 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)country comparison to the world: 167Infant mortality rate:total: 6.6 deaths/1,000 live birthscountry comparison to the world: 165male: 6.86 deaths/1,000 live birthsfemale: 6.33 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)Life expectancy at birth:total population: 78.24 yearscountry comparison to the world: 54male: 76.27 yearsfemale: 80.25 years (2013 est.)Total fertility rate:1.92 children born/woman (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 138Contraceptive prevalence rate:43.2% (1998)Health expenditures:1.8% of GDP (2010)country comparison to the world: 191Physicians density:2.76 physicians/1,000 population (2006)Hospital bed density:1.2 beds/1,000 population (2009)Drinking water source:improved:urban: 100% of populationrural: 100% of populationtotal: 100% of population (2010 est.)Sanitation facility access:improved:urban: 100% of populationrural: 100% of populationtotal: 100% of population (2010 est.)HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:less than 0.1% (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 161HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:fewer than 200 (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 157HIV/AIDS - deaths:fewer than 100 (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 121Obesity - adult prevalence rate:33.2% (2008)country comparison to the world: 16Education expenditures:2.5% of GDP (2008)country comparison to the world: 157Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and writetotal population: 96.3%male: 96.5%female: 95.4% (2010 est.)School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 13 yearsmale: 12 yearsfemale: 14 years (2011)Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:total: 1.3%country comparison to the world: 142male: 0.4%female: 8.9% (2011)Government ::QatarCountry name:conventional long form: State of Qatarconventional short form: Qatarlocal long form: Dawlat Qatarlocal short form: Qatarnote: closest approximation of the native pronunciation falls between cutter and gutter, but not like guitarGovernment type:emirateCapital:name: Dohageographic coordinates: 25 17 N, 51 32 Etime difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)Administrative divisions:7 municipalities (baladiyat, singular - baladiyah); Ad Dawhah, Al Khawr wa adh Dhakhirah, Al Wakrah, Ar Rayyan, Ash Shamal, Az Za'ayin, Umm SalalIndependence:3 September 1971 (from the UK)National holiday:Independence Day, 3 September (1971); also observed is National Day, 18 December (1878) (anniversary of Al Thani family accession to the throne)Constitution:ratified by public referendum 29 April 2003; endorsed by the Amir 8 June 2004, effective 9 June 2005Legal system:mixed legal system of civil law and Islamic law (in family and personal matters)International law organization participation:has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCtSuffrage:18 years of age; universalExecutive branch:chief of state: Amir TAMIM bin Hamad Al Thani (since 25 June 2013)head of government: Prime Minister ABDALLAH bin Nasir bin Khalifa Al Thani (since 26 June 2013); Deputy Prime Minister Ahmad bin Abdallah al-MAHMUD (since 20 September 2011)cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the amir(For more information visit the World Leaders website )elections: the position of amir is hereditaryLegislative branch:unicameral Advisory Council or Majlis al-Shura (45 seats; 15 members appointed; 30 members to be elected by popular vote beginning mid- or late 2013, per the 2003 constitutional referendum)note: the Advisory Council has limited legislative authority to draft and approve laws, but the Amir has final say on all matters; Qatar's first legislative elections are expected to be held in 2013 in which the public would elect 30 members and the Amir would appoint 15; the Advisory Council would have authority to approve the national budget, hold ministers accountable through no-confidence votes, and propose legislation; Qatar in May 2011 held nationwide elections for the 29-member Central Municipal Council (CMC) - first elected in 1999 - which has limited consultative authority aimed at improving municipal servicesJudicial branch:highest court(s): Court of Cassation (consists of the court president and several judges); Supreme Constitutional Court (consists of the chief justice and 6 members)note - the Supreme Constitutional Court and the Judicial Supreme Council were established in 1999judge selection and term of office: Cassation Court judges nominated by the Judicial Supreme Council, a 9-member independent body consisting of judiciary heads appointed by the monarch; judges appointed for 3-year renewable terms; Supreme Constitutional Court members nominated by the Judicial Supreme Council and appointed by the monarch; term of appointment NAsubordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Courts of First Instance; Sharia Courts; Courts of JusticePolitical parties and leaders:nonePolitical pressure groups and leaders:noneInternational organization participation:ABEDA, AFESD, AMF, CAEU, CD, CICA (observer), EITI (implementing country), FAO, G-77, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTODiplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Muhammad bin Abdallah bin Mitib al-RUMAYHIchancery: 2555 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20037telephone:  (202) 274-1600 and 274-1603FAX:  (202) 237-0061consulate(s) general: HoustonDiplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Susan L. ZIADEHembassy: Al-Luqta District, 22 February Road, Dohamailing address: P. O. Box 2399, Dohatelephone:  4496-6000FAX:  4488 4298Flag description:maroon with a broad white serrated band (nine white points) on the hoist side; maroon represents the blood shed in Qatari wars, white stands for peace; the nine-pointed serrated edge signifies Qatar as the ninth member of the ""reconciled emirates"" in the wake of the Qatari-British treaty of 1916note: the other eight emirates are the seven that compose the UAE and Bahrain; according to some sources, the dominant color was formerly red, but this darkened to maroon upon exposure to the sun and the new shade was eventually adoptedNational anthem:name: ""Al-Salam Al-Amiri"" (The Peace for the Anthem)lyrics/music: Sheikh MUBARAK bin Saif al-Thani/Abdul Aziz Nasser OBAIDANnote: adopted 1996; the anthem was first performed that year at a meeting of the Gulf Cooperative Council hosted by QatarEconomy ::QatarEconomy - overview:Qatar has prospered in the last several years with continued high real GDP growth. Throughout the financial crisis Qatari authorities sought to protect the local banking sector with direct investments into domestic banks. GDP grew sharply in 2010 largely due to the increase in oil prices, and 2011's growth was supported by Qatar's investment in expanding its gas sector. GDP slowed to 6.6% in 2012 as Qatar''s gas sector expansion moved toward completion. Economic policy is focused on developing Qatar''s nonassociated natural gas reserves and increasing private and foreign investment in non-energy sectors, but oil and gas still account for more than 50% of GDP, roughly 85% of export earnings, and 70% of government revenues. Oil and gas have made Qatar the world''s highest per-capita income country and the country with the lowest unemployment. Proved oil reserves in excess of 25 billion barrels should enable continued output at current levels for 57 years. Qatar''s proved reserves of natural gas exceed 25 trillion cubic meters, more than 13% of the world total and third largest in the world. Qatar''s successful 2022 World Cup bid will likely accelerate large-scale infrastructure projects such as Qatar''s metro system, light rail system, and the Qatar-Bahrain causeway. The Hamad International Airport is projected to open by the end of 2013 with an annual passenger capacity of 24 million.GDP (purchasing power parity):$191 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 59$179.2 billion (2011 est.)$158.6 billion (2010 est.)note: data are in 2012 US dollarsGDP (official exchange rate):$183.4 billion (2012 est.)GDP - real growth rate:6.6% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 3213% (2011 est.)16.7% (2010 est.)GDP - per capita (PPP):$103,900 (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 1$101,400 (2011 est.)$93,300 (2010 est.)note: data are in 2012 US dollarsGross national saving:63% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 159.9% of GDP (2011 est.)52.8% of GDP (2010 est.)GDP - composition, by end use:household consumption: 13.1%government consumption: 12.1%investment in fixed capital: 30.6%investment in inventories: -8.9%exports of goods and services: 78.6%imports of goods and services: -25.5%(2012 est.)GDP - composition, by sector of origin:agriculture: 0.1%industry: 73.6%services: 26.3% (2012 est.)Agriculture - products:fruits, vegetables; poultry, dairy products, beef; fishIndustries:liquefied natural gas, crude oil production and refining, ammonia, fertilizers, petrochemicals, steel reinforcing bars, cement, commercial ship repairIndustrial production growth rate:4.6% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 59Labor force:1.43 million (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 132Unemployment rate:0.5% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 30.4% (2011 est.)Population below poverty line:NA%Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 1.3%highest 10%: 35.9% (2007)Budget:revenues: $69.76 billionexpenditures: $49.32 billion (2012 est.)Taxes and other revenues:38% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 51Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):11.1% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 7Public debt:32.8% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 11134.4% of GDP (2011 est.)Fiscal year:1 April - 31 MarchInflation rate (consumer prices):1.9% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 391.9% (2011 est.)Central bank discount rate:4.5% (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 804.5% (31 December 2011 est.)Commercial bank prime lending rate:5.38% (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 1525.49% (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of narrow money:$24.98 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 64$22.49 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of broad money:$97.97 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 54$85.16 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of domestic credit:$149.1 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 44$121.5 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Market value of publicly traded shares:$125.4 billion (31 December 2011)country comparison to the world: 37$123.6 billion (31 December 2010)$87.86 billion (31 December 2009)Current account balance:$58.57 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 10$53.57 billion (2011 est.)Exports:$133.7 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 33$114.3 billion (2011 est.)Exports - commodities:liquefied natural gas (LNG), petroleum products, fertilizers, steelExports - partners:Japan 26.6%, South Korea 19%, India 12%, Singapore 5.7%, China 5.4% (2012)Imports:$30.79 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 66$26.93 billion (2011 est.)Imports - commodities:machinery and transport equipment, food, chemicalsImports - partners:US 14.2%, UAE 11%, Saudi Arabia 8.3%, UK 6.4%, Japan 6%, China 4.8%, Germany 4.7%, Italy 4.4%, France 4.4% (2012)Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$33.19 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 49$16.82 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Debt - external:$134.8 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 40$128 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:$32.17 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 59$31.84 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:$26.86 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 43$25.02 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Exchange rates:Qatari rials (QAR) per US dollar -3.64 (2012 est.)3.64 (2011 est.)3.64 (2010 est.)3.64 (2009)3.64 (2008)Energy ::QatarElectricity - production:28.14 billion kWh (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 66Electricity - consumption:26.38 billion kWh (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 65Electricity - exports:200,000 kWh (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 87Electricity - imports:0 kWh (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 122Electricity - installed generating capacity:3.893 million kW (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 79Electricity - from fossil fuels:100% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 32Electricity - from nuclear fuels:0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 164Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 191Electricity - from other renewable sources:0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 176Crude oil - production:1.631 million bbl/day (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 18Crude oil - exports:704,300 bbl/day (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 18Crude oil - imports:0 bbl/day (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 113Crude oil - proved reserves:25.57 billion bbl (1 January 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 13Refined petroleum products - production:153,800 bbl/day (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 66Refined petroleum products - consumption:169,900 bbl/day (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 62Refined petroleum products - exports:53,230 bbl/day (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 55Refined petroleum products - imports:11,940 bbl/day (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 128Natural gas - production:116.7 billion cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 6Natural gas - consumption:21.8 billion cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 35Natural gas - exports:113.4 billion cu m (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 2Natural gas - imports:0 cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 119Natural gas - proved reserves:25.2 trillion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 3Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:64.68 million Mt (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 50Communications ::QatarTelephones - main lines in use:306,700 (2011)country comparison to the world: 114Telephones - mobile cellular:2.302 million (2011)country comparison to the world: 135Telephone system:general assessment: modern system centered in Dohadomestic: combined fixed and mobile-cellular telephone subscribership exceeds 130 telephones per 100 personsinternational: country code - 974; landing point for the Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) submarine cable network that provides links to Asia, Middle East, Europe, and the US; tropospheric scatter to Bahrain; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia and the UAE; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat (2011)Broadcast media:TV and radio broadcast licensing and access to local media markets are state controlled; home of the satellite TV channel Al-Jazeera, which was originally owned and financed by the Qatari government, but has evolved to independent corporate status; Al-Jazeera claims editorial independence in broadcasting; local radio transmissions include state, private, and international broadcasters on FM frequencies in Doha (2012)Internet country code:.qaInternet hosts:897 (2012)country comparison to the world: 173Internet users:563,800 (2009)country comparison to the world: 117Transportation ::QatarAirports:6 (2013)country comparison to the world: 178Airports - with paved runways:total: 4over 3,047 m: 31,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)Airports - with unpaved runways:total: 2914 to 1,523 m: 1under 914 m:1 (2013)Heliports:1 (2013)Pipelines:condensate 288 km; condensate/gas 221 km; gas 2,383 km; liquid petroleum gas 90 km; oil 745 km; refined products 103 km (2013)Roadways:total: 7,790 km (2006)country comparison to the world: 142Merchant marine:total: 28country comparison to the world: 87by type: bulk carrier 3, chemical tanker 2, container 13, liquefied gas 6, petroleum tanker 4foreign-owned: 6 (Kuwait 6)registered in other countries: 35 (Liberia 5, Marshall Islands 29, Panama 1) (2010)Ports and terminals:Doha, Mesaieed (Umaieed), Ra's LaffanMilitary ::QatarMilitary branches:Qatari Emiri Land Force (QELF), Qatari Emiri Navy (QEN), Qatari Emiri Air Force (QEAF) (2013)Military service age and obligation:18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2013)Manpower available for military service:males age 16-49: 389,487females age 16-49: 165,572 (2010 est.)Manpower fit for military service:males age 16-49: 321,974females age 16-49: 140,176 (2010 est.)Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:male: 6,429female: 5,162 (2010 est.)Military expenditures:10% of GDP (2005 est.)country comparison to the world: 2Transnational Issues ::QatarDisputes - international:noneRefugees and internally displaced persons:stateless persons: 1,200 (2012)"
The World Factbook. 2014.
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